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Risk Factors
You have undergone an Angioplasty with a Drug Eluting Stent, you and your family will have a lots of questions as to what you can do to avoid or prevent this traumatic experience in the future. Although the chance of restenosis has been reduced greatly by Drug Eluting Stents but nevertheless the chance of this happening is not zero.
In order to understand how to prevent this, we need to establish as to which conditions may require a repeat Invasive Procedure in the future. They are...
  • New Block (Lesion or Disease) formation at some other place in the Coronary Artery Tree.
  • Restenosis... ie Re-blockage at the place where the Angioplasty was earlier done.
It has been scientifically studies and proven that there are certain Risk Factors which increase the chance of formation of a new block or re-blockage at the site of Angioplasty. They can be classified as...
  • Un-Controllable Risk Factors.
  • Controllable Risk Factors
The good news is that if the controllable Risk Factors are kept under check, that certainly helps to reduce the chances of Restenosis as well as new disease formation.. Lets understand these factors carefully which will help to avoid a procedure in the future.
 
Factors you can control
 

High blood pressure

 

High blood cholesterol

         

Diabetes

 

Overweight and obesity

         

Smoking

 

Physical inactivity

 
Blood Pressure - The Silent Killer
 

Blood Pressure is the Pressure exerted by the Blood against the walls of the artery. It is normal to have a Blood Pressure but higher than normal values of BP i.e. Hypertension not only increase the Chances of New Disease in the Coronary Arteries but patients with higher values of BP also have higher chances of Restenosis.

So Post Angioplasty patients have to be even more careful in terms of maintaining Normal Blood Pressure Also, high BP patients may have a higher chances of getting a Heart Attack or Stroke.

Blood pressure is always given as these two numbers, the systolic and diastolic pressures. Both are important. When the two measurements are written down, the systolic pressure is the first or top number, and the diastolic pressure is the second or bottom number (for example, 120/80). If your blood pressure is 120/80, you say that it is "120 over 80." Blood pressure changes during the day. It is lowest as you sleep and rises when you get up. It also can rise when you are excited, nervous, or active.

The blood pressure level should be around than 120/8 When the level stays high, 140/9 or higher, you have high blood pressure. With high blood pressure, the heart works harder, your arteries take a beating, and your chances of a stroke, heart attack, and kidney problems are greater.

 
What Is High Blood Pressure or Hypertension ?
 
High blood pressure is a blood pressure reading of 140/90 mmHg or higher. Both numbers are important. The good news is that it can be treated and controlled. High blood pressure is called "the silent killer" because it usually has no symptoms. Some people may not find out they have it until they have trouble with their heart, brain, or kidneys. Untreated hypertension can cause...
  • Enlargement of heart which may lead to heart failure.
  • Small bulges (aneurysms) to form in blood vessels.
  • Common locations are the main artery from the heart (aorta), arteries in the brain, legs, and intestines, and the artery leading to the spleen.
  • Blood vessels in the kidney to narrow, which may cause kidney failure.
  • Arteries throughout the body to "harden" faster, especially those in the heart, brain, kidneys, and legs. This can cause a heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, etc.
  • Blood vessels in the eyes to burst or bleed, which may cause vision changes and can result in blindness.
There are two levels of high blood pressure : Stage 1 and Stage 2 (see the chart below).
 
Categories for Blood Pressure Levels
in Adults*

(In mm Hg, millimeters of mercury)
PRE-HYPERTENSION
Systolic
Less than 120
  Diastolic
Less than 80
PRE-HYPERTENSION
Systolic
120-139
  Diastolic
80-89
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
Stage 1
Systolic
90-99
Diastolic
140-159
  Stage 2
Systolic
100 or higher
Diastolic
160 or higher
     
 
Hypertension - Controllable Risk Factors
 
The causes of Hypertension can be classified into two types Controllable and Non Controllable Factors.
  1. Obesity :
This is one of the most common causes of Hypertension. It is said that the obese patients have double the chance of having Hypertension than Non Obese Patients so maintaining Normal Body Weight is essential to maintain normal BP
  2. Stress Levels :
Stress is one direct factor that can cause a sudden and Prolonged rise of BP. Anxiety Being Overworked, Stressed and tense patients have a higher chances of Hypertension.
  3. Smoking
Smokers have a very high chance of Hypertension as Nicotine in Cigarettes cause Vasoconstriction i.e. Narrowing of Arteries which causes rise in Blood Pressure.
  4. Lack of Exercise
Patients with Sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise do have higher chances of Hypertension. Exercise helps to reduce weight, Burn Calories, Destress you and hence reduce Hypertension.
 
Among the Uncontrollable Factors are
 
Age :
As the age passes there is an increased chance of being Hypertensive. Older patients tend to have Hypertension.

Genetic :
High Blood Pressure runs is some families.
 
Understanding Angioplasty
1 2 3
Risk Factors